Radical nephrectomy is accepted as a possible cure for kidney cancer. In recent years, the classic radical nephrectomy in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma values have changed, especially have reached a consensus on the changes in the scope of surgical resection, treatment is no longer a single open surgery. It can be performed by open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. The mortality rate of radical nephrectomy was about 2%, and local recurrence rate was 1%~2%. Conventional renal artery embolization is not recommended before radical nephrectomy.
Nephron sparing surgery: NSS is recommended according to various indications, and the curative effect is the same as radical nephrectomy. In the case of complete renal tissue wrapped around the naked eye, routine histological examination of the marginal tissue was not necessary during the operation. NSS can be performed by open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Nephron sparing surgery for local recurrence after 0~10%, the tumor is less than or equal to 4CM postoperative local recurrence rate of 0~3%. The mortality rate for NSS was 2%.
Laparoscopic surgery: laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy are performed. The surgical approach was pided into transperitoneal, retroperitoneal and hand assisted laparoscopic surgery. Resection range and standard with open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery is suitable for tumor confined to renal capsule, without surrounding tissue invasion and without lymphatic metastasis and venous tumor thrombus. The curative effect is similar to that of open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery also has a certain mortality rate.
Minimally invasive treatment: Cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound can be used for surgery, small tumors, kidney cancer treatment, long-term effect is uncertain, should be strictly according to the indications carefully chosen.上一篇：What are the causes of no urine output after dialysis?