Uremia is the final stage of renal injury, due to various causes of chronic renal parenchyma damage, can not excrete a variety of metabolic waste and can not degrade some endocrine hormones, resulting in its accumulation in the body and cause toxic effects. Uremic toxins include: small molecules containing nitrogen substances, such as guanidine, urea, uric acid, amines and indoles and other protein metabolites; molecular toxic substances: including excessive blood retention of hormones: such as parathyroid hormone Etc .; macromolecular toxic substances, such as glucagon, β2 microglobulin, lysozyme and so on. The above-mentioned small, medium and macromolecule substances, some toxic to humans, some in the normal concentration, harmless to the human body, but the blood level is too high, there will be toxic effects, causing some uremic symptoms, and with progressive deterioration of the disease to the end of the period when there is uremia.
1, digestive system symptoms: the most common symptoms of digestive system, almost every patient has loss of appetite, abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, acid reflux, belching and so on.
2, blood system symptoms: uremic patients have varying degrees of renal anemia, often skin and mucous membrane bleeding tendency, manifested as subcutaneous ecchymosis, gingival and combined with subarachnoid hemorrhage, epistaxis and so on.
3, neuropsychiatric symptoms: uremia when the incidence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of 13% to 86%, mainly disturbance of consciousness, cranial nerve damage, muscle spasms and epilepsy.
4, respiratory symptoms: uremia pulmonary infection rate of 50%, the most common is bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, suppurative bronchitis.
5, immune dysfunction: the incidence of urinary tract infection was 44%, gastrointestinal and skin infections are more common.
6, sexual dysfunction: male often accompanied by impotence, premature ejaculation, women often menopause or menstrual cycle disorders.
7, cardiovascular system symptoms: uremia with renal hypertension as high as 80% to 90%, manifested as headache, dizziness, severe vomiting, convulsions and other hypertensive encephalopathy performance. Uremic pericarditis incidence of up to 60% to 100%, 30% to 40% uremia pericarditis occurred pericardial effusion. Mainly for the precordial discomfort, chest tightness, chest pain. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of uremic death, uremia due to vascular complications accounted for 64.3% of the death toll.
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