Clinical manifestations of nephrotic syndrome have 4 characteristics
1 a large number of proteinuria: proteinuria is the main component of albumin, also contains other plasma protein components. Patients with proteinuria more than 3.5 grams per day, may have lipid. When the glomerular filtration rate is reduced, proteinuria can be reduced, and the output of urinary protein can be increased when severe hypoproteinemia, high protein diet will increase the excretion of urinary protein.
2 hypoproteinemia: hypoproteinemia refers to patients with serum albumin per liter of less than 30 grams, when the patient's compensatory effect of albumin synthesis to make up for the loss of urine protein, there will be hypoproteinemia.
3 hyperlipidemia: hyperlipidemia associated with hypoalbuminemia, the patient can be found in the urine, urine, double refraction of fat body, may be cholesterol containing epithelial cells or fat body tube type.
4 patients with edema: most noticeable symptoms are progressive systemic edema, initial morning eyelid, face and ankle edema, along with the gradual development of the disease, edema can affect the body, and the emergence of ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, mediastinal effusion, edema of scrotum or labia, also can appear pulmonary edema.
Beijing In China