Glycosylated hemoglobin is the standard to control blood sugar, if blood glucose control is not good, with the extension of diabetes duration, will gradually appear a variety of chronic complications, mainly refers to macrovascular disease, microangiopathy and neuropathy. Therefore, diabetic complications check is also very important.
Fundus examination: diabetic eye complications mainly related to duration and blood glucose status. Common retinopathy, cataracts, etc., may lead to decreased vision, or even blindness. Recommended inspection time: Check every 6 months.
Diabetic nephropathy: The gold standard for the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is: urinary microalbuminuria ≥ 20 μg / min or 30 mg / 24 hours to be diagnosed. Recommended time to check: Urine microalbumin every 6 months.
Heart disease: Diabetes Heart disease, including coronary heart disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, need to do electrocardiogram, cardiac ultrasound, cardiac autonomic electrophysiology. Recommended inspection time: Check every 3-6 months.
Neuropathy: Diabetic neuropathy is diagnosed on the basis of neuroelectrophysiological tests, namely nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. Recommended inspection time: Check every 6 to 12 months.
Peripheral vascular disease: systemic vascular can be involved, the most common lower extremities, can be manifested as foot skin cold, foot pain, intermittent claudication, and skin susceptible to infection, ulcer prolonged unhealed, in serious cases cause gangrene lead to amputation. Color Doppler ultrasound can help early detection of peripheral vascular lesions. Recommended inspection time: Check every 6 to 12 months.
Oral examination: periodontal disease in oral diseases is the most common, the prevalence rate of up to 30%. Recurrent chronic gingivitis, alveolar bone atrophy, over time easily lead to tooth loss or loss. Therefore can not ignore the oral examination. Recommended inspection time: Check every 6 to 12 months.
Routine urine test: Including urine sugar, urine ketone body, urine protein, urine leukocytes and many other indicators, through these indicators can indirectly reflect the blood glucose level, to determine whether there is ketoacidosis and so on. In addition, diabetic nephropathy can be found earlier. Recommended inspection time: Check every 3-6 months.
Blood pressure: Diabetes with hypertension Measure the blood pressure once a day. It is best to make multiple measurements daily. Normal blood pressure is best measured weekly.
Lipids: Diabetes mellitus is often associated with dyslipidemias. Decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol is found through lipid tests. Patients with elevated cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol should take some lipid-lowering medications under the direction of a physician. Recommended inspection time: Check every 3-6 months.
Body Mass Index: Body Mass Index can understand the degree of obesity or obesity, not only as a daily total caloric intake of reference, but also guide patients to choose hypoglycemic agents.
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