Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus, and also is a kind of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Therefore, patients with a history of diabetes must be aware of the causes of diabetic nephropathy, early prevention.
1, hyperglycemia: diabetic nephropathy is closely related to hyperglycemia. Poor glycemic control can accelerate the development of diabetic nephropathy.
2, high blood pressure: any diabetic nephropathy is accompanied by high blood pressure, type 1 diabetic nephropathy, hypertension and microalbuminuria occurred in parallel, while in type 2 diabetes often occurs before the onset of nephropathy. Blood pressure control is closely related to the development of diabetic nephropathy.
3, genetic factors: some patients with hypertension family history of diabetes, the incidence of diabetic nephropathy was significantly higher than that of patients without hypertension family history. In addition, there is a difference in the incidence of diabetic nephropathy among different ethnic groups, suggesting that the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy is related to genetic factors.
Diabetic nephropathy care should do the following:
(1) patients should have a correct understanding of the doctor, urged on diabetic nephropathy nursing examination, not averse to the doctor, because the doctor promptly to the patients and their families on time to complete the regular diabetes self monitoring, according to the requirement of urine glucose and blood glucose determination, which is convenient for the adjustment of medical treatment.
(2) patients should be according to the timing of dosing requirements of doctors, and observe the effect after medication, to strictly control the blood glucose and urine glucose, in general, fasting blood glucose should be controlled at 5.6 7.8mmol/L, with hypertension should control blood pressure in the 16.7 - 17.5/10.5 - 11.5KPa. But not all patients should comply with this principle, the disease is also different in terms of standards. Therefore, patients with diabetes nephropathy nursing standards must be controlled according to the doctor.
(3) dietary guidance for diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy should adhere to the principles of diet and low protein diet, because of the low protein diet can reduce the glomerular filtration rate, but also to reduce the amount of urine protein excretion, it is advocated that a low protein diet. A patient's protein intake was controlled at 1g per kilogram of body weight per day, and two patients were given a daily dose of 0.6 0.8g per kg.
(4) the use of diuretics in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. For patients with edema can be used according to doctor's advice diuretics, while appropriate restrictions on water and sodium intake in order to reduce the burden on the kidneys.
(5) prevention of urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection will aggravate diabetic nephropathy, and ultimately lead to renal failure, therefore, active prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in diabetic nephropathy care is also very important. Patients should do a good job of personal hygiene, especially women should pay attention to perineal cleaning. Those who are infected should find out the infected bacteria or do drug sensitivity test, select the appropriate antibiotic treatment.
(6) regular monitoring of urinary albumin, urine routine, renal function, in order to grasp the changes in the condition.
(7) pay attention to protect the kidneys. Avoid the use of drugs and contrast agents that are harmful to the kidneys.
(8) try to avoid all kinds of urinary catheterization and catheterization, so as not to cause infection.
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