Low protein diet:
The metabolites in the human body are mainly derived from the protein composition of the diet, especially the animal protein, such as meat, rice, flour, soy products and so on. Therefore, in order to reduce the burden of residual healthy kidney units, the patient's protein intake must be compatible with the excretion of the kidney. In other words, kidney disease protein intake should be based on the extent of renal dysfunction, do the corresponding reduction. For example: when the serum creatinine 170 ~ 440umol / L, the protein intake of 0.6 grams per kilogram of body weight per day is appropriate, a large number of proteinuria, each lost 1 gram of urine protein, an additional 1.5 grams of protein. When serum creatinine exceeds 440umol / L, the protein intake should be further reduced to not more than 30 grams (0.4 g / kg) as well. However, it must be emphasized that if the blind pursuit of protein intake, will lead to patients with malnutrition, physical decline, the effect is not good. Therefore, in reducing the total amount of protein intake under the premise of the need to selectively add high nutritional value of the protein to meet the body needs of the nutritional needs, that is, to increase the intake of certain animal protein (such as milk, eggs, fish , Lean meat, etc.), to reduce the number of plant protein, the former contains the number of essential amino acids and the latter are higher than the latter. Because the food contains many plant protein, it is recommended to eat starch food, such as wheat starch, corn starch, lotus root starch, potatoes, potato and other (protein content of only 0.4%), instead of ordinary rice, flour and other staple food (protein content of 7 -10%).
Low salt diet:
No matter what kind of kidney disease, as long as there is edema, it must limit salt intake. Edema is obvious, should be limited to 1 g per day, serious and even require a saltless diet. To reduce the amount of urine protein, edema, reduce the amount of salt can be increased, but also should not exceed 5 grams per day. The purpose of low-salt diet is to reduce the body of water, sodium retention, edema subsided and blood pressure decreased.
1 to 2 grams of salt a day (trumpet toothpaste cover is full when about 1 grams), do not have to put the dish, because the food is also basically tasteless, to change the way to eat. Morning can be dessert; noon will be 1 gram of salt on a small dish, with food dipped in eating. In this way, the total intake of 1 day unchanged, but can taste the salty, can stimulate appetite. But should pay attention to the low salt diet, can not eat pickles, pickles, mustard, salted bread, fritters, etc., can not eat seaweed, rape, spinach, fennel, celery, lily, radish and so on. Because these foods have a higher sodium content per hectare. These foods eat more, it is equal to the amount of salt increased.
Intake of vegetables, fruit:
Kidney disease, if the normal urine output is normal, no urine and renal failure, should eat vegetables, fruits, to provide adequate vitamins. Such as reduced urine output, especially less than 500 ml per day, will have to selectively eat vegetables and fruits. Because vegetables, fruits are generally rich in potassium, and nephrotic patients with oliguria, serum potassium levels were increased. Hyperthyroidism can cause cardiac arrest, life-threatening. Vegetables, fruits, cereals are rich in potassium foods, including high potassium fruits are watermelon, banana, pineapple, mango, jujube, melon, etc .; vegetables containing high potassium amaranth, spinach, celery, carrots, Bamboo shoots, potatoes. Kidney patients in the oliguria stage should eat less, if the use of diuretics, blood potassium is low, you can eat, especially fresh fruit juice rich in potassium, can be used as oral potassium. Hami melon is rich in potassium ions, every 100 grams of melon meat contains about 250 mg of potassium. Potassium content in the body is too high, can cause heart disease, bradycardia, conduction block, life-threatening. Renal failure, glomerular filtration rate decreased, decreased renal tubular function, potassium metabolic disorders, and can not be timely in excess of potassium excreted, resulting in hyperkalemia. Therefore, patients with renal failure, not eating cantaloupe.
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