Routine urine analysis project
Urine volume (Vol)
Environment as usual normal adults one day and night (24 hours) urination 0.8 ~ 2.0 liters. But water quantity, activity, sweating, the temperature can affect urine;
A day and night urine > 2500 ml of multiple urine, < 400 ml of oliguria, < 100 ml or completely within 12 hours no urine for closed completely, such as night urination quantity > 500 ml, urine specific gravity < 1.018 night increased urine output.
(Col) normal urine color of urine is light yellow to tan. Often affected by diet, exercise, sweating and other diabetes insipidus, almost colorless when diabetes patients urine; Liver cell sex yellow gangrene, obstructive jaundice you then or deep yellow, orange or red turbulence urine bile, but if taking riboflavin, composite subsist turbulence B, furan drugs can also show dark yellow, should be distinguished with the above-mentioned bilirubinuria; Urinary tract tumors, stones, tuberculosis, or trauma, and acute inflammation, such as acute cystitis) appear blood in the urine, look red, visible under the microscope a large number of red blood cells, a large number of white blood cells in the urine, microorganism, epithelial cells, or when a large number of amorphous phosphate and uric acid salt in milk color. Also visible soy sauce color, red color, dark brown color such as urine, except for the drug, the proposal went to the hospital to further examination.
Acid-base reaction (pH)
Check urine acid-base reaction
Normal for weak acid urine more fresh pH6. O, due to the affected by food, pH swings in 5. O ~ 8. O
In hot disease, excessive sweating, protein decomposition exuberant, especially when the acidosis, urine acid enhancement is strongly acidic, pH, chloride, calcium chloride, dilute hydrochloric acid and other drugs, urine acidic. Alkalosis, mixed with a lot of pus and blood in the urine, taking the basic drugs such as soda, alkaline urine, pH increase.
Specific gravity (SG)
The proportion of raid urine
Normal 24-hour urine specific gravity at about 1.015. Often bump between 1.010 ~ 1.025, due to diet, activity, sweating, etc. Urine specific gravity at random turbulence category is 1.005 ~ 1.030;
24 hours and urine increased the proportion of food when in high temperature dehydration, acute glomerulonephritis, heart is not complete. Proteinuria and diabetes urine specific gravity is also increased. Miscellaneous food in 24 hours urine specific gravity low in diabetes insipidus, chronic nephritis, such as decreased renal enrichment results. Determination of arbitrary random urine, urine protein and sugar, the proportion of 1.025 or higher, showing normal kidney enrichment results, normal kidney dilution proportion of 1.005 or less performance results, such as strong at about 1.010, said zhang urine, etc. For the kidney essence is damaged, kidney caused by low concentration and dilution results.
Normal urine clear and transparent with no precipitation. After a period of time, can appear floc. Especially women urine;
Crowd out when the turbid urine, often as a result of white blood cells, epithelial cells, mucous, microorganisms, etc, should be raided a microscope to identify, a few patient urinary china-africa crystalline phosphate precipitate, also make turbid urine, is no clinical significance;
Urine white blood cells (neutrophils lipase LEU)
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